IP V4 Classes and subnets

IPV4

 

 

IANA-reserved private IPv4 network ranges
Start End No. of addresses
24-bit block (/8 prefix, 1 × A) 10.0.0.0 10.255.255.255 16777216
20-bit block (/12 prefix, 16 × B) 172.16.0.0 172.31.255.255 1048576
16-bit block (/16 prefix, 256 × C) 192.168.0.0 192.168.255.255 65536

 

Historical classful network architecture
Class Leading
bits
Size of network
number
 bit field
Size of rest
bit field
Number
of networks
Addresses
per network
Start address End address
A 0 8 24 128 (27) 16,777,216 (224) 0.0.0.0 127.255.255.255
B 10 16 16 16,384 (214) 65,536 (216) 128.0.0.0 191.255.255.255
C 110 24 8 2,097,152 (221) 256 (28) 192.0.0.0 223.255.255.255

 

 

Name resolution

IPv4 network standards reserve the entire 127.0.0.0/8 address block for loopback purposes. That means any packet sent to one of those 16,777,214 addresses (127.0.0.1 through 127.255.255.254) will be looped back.

The resolution of the name ‘localhost’ to the most-commonly used loopback addresses is set up by the following lines in each device’s hosts file:

127.0.0.1    localhost
::1          localhost

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